Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane are gases that accumulate in the atmosphere and prevent heat from radiating from the Earth`s surface into space, creating the so-called greenhouse effect. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the leading international scientific body working on the issue, the concentration of these heat storage gases has increased dramatically since pre-industrial times to levels not seen in at least 800,000 years. Carbon dioxide (the main cause of climate change) has increased by 40%, nitrous oxide by 20% and methane by 150% since 1750 – mainly from the combustion of dirty fossil fuels. The IPCC says it is “extremely likely” that these emissions are mainly responsible for the rise in global temperatures since the 1950s. At the same time, deforestation and forest degradation have also contributed to their fair share of global carbon emissions. Since Trump`s announcement that U.S. envoys have continued to participate in U.N. climate negotiations as necessary to solidify the details of the deal. Meanwhile, thousands of leaders across the country have stepped in to fill the void created by the lack of federal climate leadership, reflecting the will of the vast majority of Americans who support the Paris Agreement.
Among city and state leaders, business leaders, universities, and individuals, there has been a wave of participation in initiatives such as America`s Pledge, the U.S. Climate Alliance, We Are Still In, and the American Cities Climate Challenge. Complementary and sometimes overlapping movements aim to deepen and accelerate efforts to combat climate change at local, regional and national levels. Each of these efforts is focused on the U.S. working toward the goals of the Paris Agreement, despite Trump`s attempts to steer the country in the opposite direction. It will also allow the parties to progressively improve their contributions to the fight against climate change in order to achieve the long-term objectives of the agreement. Although climate change mitigation and adaptation require increased climate finance, adaptation has generally received less support and mobilized less private sector action.  A 2014 OECD report found that in 2014, only 16% of global financing went to climate change adaptation.  The Paris Agreement called for a balance between climate finance and mitigation, and in particular highlighted the need to increase adaptation support for parties most vulnerable to the effects of climate change, including least developed countries and small island developing states. The agreement also reminds the parties of the importance of public subsidies, as adaptation measures receive less investment from the public sector.  John Kerry, as Secretary of State, announced that the United States would double funding for grant-based adaptation by 2020.
 At the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) in December 2015, 195 countries adopted the Paris Agreement2. The first instrument of its kind, this landmark agreement, includes the goal of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change by “keeping the global average temperature rise well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and striving to limit the temperature rise to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.” While the expanded transparency framework is universal, as is the global stocktake that takes place every 5 years, the framework is designed to provide “built-in flexibility” to distinguish the capacities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement contains provisions to improve the capacity-building framework.  The Agreement takes into account the different situations of certain countries and notes in particular that the review by technical experts for each country takes into account the specific reporting capacity of that country.  The agreement also develops a transparency capacity building initiative to help developing countries put in place the institutions and procedures necessary to comply with the transparency framework.  (b) improve the capacity to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change and promote climate resilience and development with low greenhouse gas emissions in a way that does not threaten food production; The 4. In August 2017, the Trump administration sent an official notice to the United Nations that the United States, while the overall intention to scale up the global response to climate change is clear, the Paris Agreement does not specify exactly what is meant by “global average temperature” or what period of history should be considered “pre-industrial.” To answer the question of how close we are to the 1.5°C warming, we must first be clear about how the two terms are defined in this special report. The Paris Agreement is a historic environmental agreement adopted by almost all countries in 2015 to combat climate change and its negative impacts. The agreement aims to significantly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit the increase in global temperature this century to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, while looking for ways to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees.
The agreement contains commitments from all major emitting countries to reduce their pollution from climate change and to strengthen these commitments over time. The Compact provides an opportunity for developed countries to support developing countries in their efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change, and provides a framework for transparent monitoring, reporting and strengthening of individual and collective climate objectives of countries. Recognizing that many developing countries and small island states that have contributed the least to climate change could suffer the most from its consequences, the Paris Agreement includes a plan for developed countries – and others that are “able to do so” – to continue to provide funds to help developing countries mitigate and increase their resilience to climate change. The agreement builds on financial commitments from the 2009 Copenhagen Accord, which aimed to increase public and private climate finance for developing countries to $100 billion a year by 2020. (To put this in perspective, global military spending in 2017 alone amounted to about $1.7 trillion, more than a third of which came from the United States.) The Copenhagen Compact also created the Green Climate Fund to help mobilize transformative financing with targeted public funds. The Paris Agreement set hope that the world would set a higher annual target by 2025 to build on the $100 billion target for 2020 and put in place mechanisms to achieve that scale. In quantifying the damage that carbon pollution does to society, Trump views America as an island in itself — and we all know what climate change is doing to the islands. The NRDC is working to make the Global Climate Action Summit a success by encouraging more ambitious commitments to the historic 2015 agreement and initiatives to reduce pollution. Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legally binding emission reduction targets (as well as sanctions for non-compliance) only for developed countries, the Paris Agreement requires all countries – rich, poor, developed and developed – to do their part and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.